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Today is 1st May 2015. On this day in 1977 ie on 01.05.77, I got married. This lovely accident happened 38 years ago. I and my dear wife Manjit Kaur, have travelled a long distance together. This morning while praying to Lord Almighty, she said and hoped to celebrate at least 50 years of our togetherness before …you know what…… Inshaallah, be it so.

Some years ago my sister-in-law’s married daughter, while wishing me a happy anniversary, had reminded me of an old Hindi movie song : ”Jab hum hongey 60 (saathth) saal key, aur tum hogi 55 (pachpan) kee, bolo preet nibhaogee na tabh bhi apne bachpan kee ?”

Manjit has been a good companion on the path of love, we have braved many storms together, enjoyed many sweet moments, re-lived many “fights” “misunderstandings” and what not. She has been my pillar of strength, my anchor, my torch bearer. She is a wonderful human being, a very caring mother, a very intelligent and outspoken person who calls a spade a spade. She has the gift of judging very astutely any person whom she meets for the first time. Her perceptions about others have been 100 % correct as per my experience so far. I have learnt to rely on her judgment, her analysis of practical situations. She is a God fearing, devout lady and an EXCELLENT home maker. God Bless Her. May we travel many more years  together further but with the Divine Will of The Lord above. She has tenderly but strictly mothered and reared two beautiful, good natured, hard working, God fearing children Hardeep Singh and Harmeen Kaur and we are both very proud of them both. By grace of GOD, they are both happily married and are equally happy with and proud of their life partners Inderjeet Kaur and Harinder Singh and now are proud parents of wonderful God given gifts of beautiful children–Sukhman Kaur and Devjyot Singh.



1ST MAY 2015


A Hymn from Shri Guru Granth Sahib (SGGS)…

A Hymn from Shri Guru Granth Sahib (SGGS)

I had the good fortune of listening to a very meaningful hymn sung by professional singers in the nearby Gurudwara a few days ago. It is from page  44 of SGGS. It is generally sung on occasions of celebrations of happy events in the family or society. The Hymn is commonly begun with line number 6 which is used as the theme of the hymn to celebrate the occasion. Thereafter, other lines of the hymn are sung and line number 6 is repeated a number of times. 

I most humbly share with you the hymn. Each line is transcribed first into English from the original in Gurmukhi language for ease of understanding. Below it, is the meaning of the line expressed as simply as possible and as near in meaning to the original. I hope you will appreciate the central idea and the theme of this beautiful hymn. God Bless Us All with His Divine Grace.

1. Sabhey thok praptey jey aavey ikk hathth. – All things are received if the One* is obtained.(*His Holy Name)

2. Janam padarath safal hai jey sacha shabad kathth.- The precious gift of this human life becomes fruitful when one chants the True Word of the Shabad** (**Guru’s Words) 

3. Gur tey mehal praptey jiss likhiya hovey mathth.- One who has such destiny written on his forehead, only he enters the mansion of the Lord, And in His presence, through the Guru. 

4 .Merey mann  ek sio chitt laaey.- O my mind, focus your consciousness on the One. 

5. Ekas bin sabh dhandh hai,sabh mithiya moh maaey.- Without the One, all entanglements are worthless; emotional attachment to Maya is totally false. 

6.Lakh khushiyaan paatshahiyaan, jey satgur nadar karey.- Hundreds of thousands of princely pleasures are enjoyed, if the True Guru bestows His Glance of Grace. 

7.Nimakh ek harr naam dey,mera mann tann seetal hoey.- If He bestows the Name of the Lord on me, even for a moment, my mind and body are cooled and soothed. 

8. Jis ko poorab likhiya tinn satgur charan gahey.-Those who have such pre-ordained destiny hold tight to the Feet of the True Guru.

9. Safal moorat saflaa ghadi, jitt sachhey naal piaar.-Fruitful is that moment, and fruitful is that time, when one is in love with the True Lord. 

10. Dukh santaap naa lagai jiss harr ka naam aadhaar.- Sufferings and sorrow do not touch those who have the Support of the Name of the Lord. 

11. Baahn pakad gur kadhiya soyee utriiyaa paar.- Grasping them by the arm, the Guru lifts them up and out, and carries them across to the other side. 

12. Thaan suhaava pavit hai jiththey santt sabhaa.-Embellished and immaculate is that place where the Saints gather together.  

13. Dhoyee tiss hi no milley jinn poora guru labhaa.-He alone finds shelter, who has met the Perfect Guru. 

14. Nanak badhdha gharr taahan jithey mirat naa janam jarra.-Nanak builds his house upon that site where there is no death, no birth, and no old age. 

To listen to this hymn sung by professional singers, go to the following YOUTUBE LINK:


Good Times,Bad Times…

Good Times,Bad Times..
The other day,during a visit to a Gurudwara (Sikhs’ place
of worship) I was simply moved by a poster displayed on a wall.
It said in Punjabi:
Sukh weley shukrana,
Dukh weley ardaas,
Harr weley simran
Here is the meaning of the above quote:
During good times, thank the Lord,
During bad times, offer prayers to the Lord,
At all times, chant His holy name repeatedly.
I asked myself, when was the last time I thanked God for everything in my life? We always think that is easy to thank God during the good times. I am sure, like me, most of us have given God a quick thank you when something good happens in our life. It is not so easy to thank God in difficult times. During these times it is hard to be thankful. We may not even think we have anything to be thankful for. 
Today,many of us face situations and problems like unemployment, home loans defaults, economic chaos, political upheaval and many more of such problems. Many of these problems have directly impacted us and other people in significant ways. I feel we need to be thankful to God all the time. In such difficult times you may wonder what you have to be thankful for. Be thankful for your family and friends who have been with you and stood by you in thick and thin.
What about this beautiful world that God made for us? We need to be thankful for that too. There are countless other things to be thankful for,in each of our lives. We  just need to look for them. I am of the firm belief that God has a plan for our lives and we will have good times as well as bad times. Both will ultimately shape us into a person God wants us to be. 
Now, I reflected on the aspect : how do we give thanks to God? I remembered what was taught to us in Moral Science in our school days. Prayer is the first thing that comes to my mind.
Prayers should always include thanking God for everything. I feel, we should take time and be specific when we thank God. A quick thanks for everything, according to me, does not sound very sincere. If you have ever been on the receiving end of that you will surely understand.

Becoming more thankful will help you build a closer relationship with God. You will develop an attitude of worship that will last throughout the day. The needs  of those around you will become more evident. I feel ultimately, you will become more open to telling others about God and what he has done for you.  
Before I conclude, I would like to quote Bahadhur Shah Zafar’s sher, which I now recall having once heard from one of my father’s friends, in a get-to-gether, on some occasion, decades ago: 
Zafar,aadmi usko naa janiyegaa
Ho vo kitna hii, saab-e-fehm-o-zakaa
Jisse aish mein yaad-e-khuda naa rahii
Jisse teish mein, khof-e-khuda na rahaa
A rough translation of above is as under:
So! Zafar, please don’t consider that person a man,no matter how great his wisdom and wit, who didn’t think of his Lord while he was drowned in pleasures (good times) and who didn’t fear his Lord, while being ablaze with rage (in bad times).
(If some esteemed readers with knowledge of Urdu/Persian can do a better translation, I shall be obliged please.)
Let us ponder on this, while I wish you all good times in the near future.



Which Direction….?

Which Direction…?
I read with great interest and with a little bit of confusion (?) an article titled :” Muslims were praying in the wrong direction” in a local newspaper dated 21st July 2010. Here is the text of the article :
Quote :
Indonesian Muslims have been praying in the wrong directions for months, facing Somalia when they should have been facing Saudi Arabia, the country’s highest religious authority said today.
A cleric from the Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) admitted the body made a mistake last March when calculating where Muslims should turn to when praying. He said new instructions had now been issued and that people only had to shift their position for the correct alignment.
According to Islamic tradition, Muhammad was born in Mecca, and it is said to be the place where Allah’s message was first revealed to him. Each day Muslims from around the world turn to Mecca to pray and, at least once in their lives if they can afford it, travel there to perform the hajj, or pilgrimage.
Ma’ruf Amin from the MUI said a “thorough study with some cosmography and astronomy experts” revealed that Indonesian Muslims had been facing southern Somalia and Kenya instead of Mecca, which is more than 1,000 miles further north.
The error did not mean their prayers would be ignored, he added. “God understands that humans make mistakes. Allah always hears their prayers.”
The MUI website advises Muslims to make use of a website,Qibla Locator, to locate Mecca without a compass.
It is not the first time the MUI has played down the significance of misdirection. In January it took steps to reassure worshippers they need not be concerned by reports that thousands of Indonesian mosques displayed the incorrect kiblat, or direction toward Mecca.
Mutoha Arkanuddin, an Islamic scholar, claimed that more than more than half of the country’s mosques pointed the wrong way. The chair of the MUI said that God was not in Mecca, while a government minister described Arkanuddin’s work as invalid and dangerous.
Rohadi Abdul Fatah, director of sharia law and Islamic affairs at the ministry of religious affairs, said the state frequently checked the accuracy of kiblats across the country.
He told the Jakarta Globe that off-kilter kiblats were often an issue in quake-hit areas such as Yogyakarta, West Java and West Sumatra and that the government had the money for theodolites, a precision surveying instrument.
Islam is the predominant religion in Indonesia, with about 200 million followers, although its constitution gives all people the right to worship according to their own belief or religion.
I would like to humbly clarify at the outset, that, my intention is not to raise any controversy or cause any misunderstanding among various followers of different  religions.
My upbringing in the Sikhism faith has always taught me that God is everywhere and that God is within you,as well.
At this juncture,I would like to connect this issue with a saakhi (true life incident) from Shri Guru Nanak Devji’s life.
It is about his visit to Mecca,during one of his several journeys through  out the world. 
At Mecca, Nanak was found sleeping with his feet towards the Kaaba, before which the Muslims prostrated themselves when performing their prayer. Kazi Rukan-ud-din, who observed this, angrily remarked: “Infidel! How dare you dishonour God’s place by turning your feet towards Him?” He also kicked Nanak. The Guru did not show any anger. In fact, he was never angry with anybody. He smiled and in a calm, sweet voice he said to him, “Brother, don’t be angry. I am very tired. I need rest. I respect the House of God as much as any one. Please turn my feet in a direction in which God or the House of God is not there.”
The Qazi took hold of the Guru’s feet. He dragged them in the opposite direction. Then he lifted his eyes. He saw the Kaaba standing in the direction of the Guru’s feet. He turned the Guru’s feet in another direction. The Kaaba was seen standing in that direction. Qazi dragged the Guru’s feet to this side and that. He dragged them round and round. The Kaaba was seen to be going round and round. It was always, in the direction of the Guru’s feet. His feet were always towards the Kaaba. The Qazi was struck with wonder. He then recognised the glory of Guru Nanak.
Kazi Rukan-ud-di and the other hajjis were all filled with wonder.He let go of the Guru’s feet. The Guru got up and said, ‘Don’t you see that God’s House is in every direction? I tell you:He dwells in every place, in every heart. He is in your hearts. He is also in mine.’
(Those who wish to read more on this, please go to the following link : 
I hope that the message from this saakhi is very clear !
Now, I shall wait for the readers’ views on this issue.
May Allah/God/Ram/Rahim/Khuda/Jesus….continue to shower His choicest blessings on all of us !


A Hymn from Shri Guru Granth Sahib

A Hymn from Shri Guru Granth Sahib(SGGS) 

On occasion of Women’s Day, I most humbly post the translation of a very apt hymn from SGGS regarding the Status of Women in Sikhism. 

This hymn,originally in Gurmukhi script,was composed by Shri Guru Nanak Dev ji and it is on page 473 of SGGS. 

The most common and literal meaning of the hymn is expressed herebelow :  

One translation goes thus : 

” From woman, man is born; within woman, man is conceived; to woman he is engaged and married.  Woman becomes his friend; through woman, the future generations come.  When his woman dies, he seeks another woman; to woman he is bound.  So why call her bad? From her, kings are born.  From woman, woman is born; without woman, there would be no one at all.”   

Another translation, in slightly different words,goes like this : 

“In a woman man is conceived,
From a woman he is born,
With a woman he is betrothed and married,
With a woman he contracts friendship.
Why denounce her, the one from whom even kings are born ?
From a woman a woman is born,
None may exist without a woman.” 
The most appealing and important original line in Gurmukhi from the hymn,according to my understanding, is :
So kyon mandda aakhiey, jitt jammey raajan !” 
The meanings of the above words are as under :
So = her, kyon = why , mandda = bad , aakhiey = say, call , jitt = who, jammey = gave birth to, rajjan = kings 
Let us therefore, realise the correct status of a woman in our society and accord her all due recognition and respect she deserves.

Hymns of Sheikh Farid-Part II

Hymns of Sheikh Farid-Part II
Further to my posting dated 26th Jan 2010, I now most humbly post a few more beautiful hymns of Sheikh Farid ji,which have been included in Shri Guru Granth Sahibji (SGGS), along with my efforts at translation. I have also hinted the central idea of each hymn alongside,in brackets :
Hymn 1  ( Judge your self before judging others )
Farida,jey toon akal lateef,kaaley likh naa lekh,
Apanadey girewaan meh,sirr neevan kar dekh !
Faridji says,if you are really a very intelligent person,
then,do not talk or write about evil deeds of others.
Just look inside yourself (introspect) first, to judge
as to how good or bad your own deeds are !
Hymn 2  ( Living within one’s means )
Farida roti meri kaath ki,lahwan meri bhukh,
Jinna khaadi chopdi,ghanney sehngey dukh !
Faridji says,a simple unbuttered chapati earned
from my own hardwork,is sufficient to satisfy my hunger.
Those who eat a chapati buttered lavishly (accompanied with other dishes) are bound to suffer a lot !
Hymn 3 ( Doing good deeds )
Farida jinni kammi naahen gunn,tey kamm dey vissar,
Matt sharminda thheevai,sayeen dey darbaar !
Faridji says,do not do any work which has no good intentions.
Or else,after death,you will feel ashamed in the Lord’s Court !
( where your accounts of good and bad deeds will be checked )
Hymn 4 ( Importance of prayer )
Uthth Farida, ujj saaj,subah nimaaz gujaar,
Jo sirr saayeen naah nivey, so sirr kapp uttaar !
Faridji tells his disciples to get up early in the morning,
wash their hands and faces and offer the morning prayers (namaaz) to Allah. The head that doesn’t bow before the Supreme Being,  
deseves to be cut off from the body !
Hymn 5  ( Every one has his quota of sufferings)
Farida main jaaniyan dukh mujh ko,dukh sabahey jagg,
Uchchey chadh ke dekhiya,gharr gharr eha agg !
Faridji says, I thought that only I am suffering in this world.
But when I climbed up on the roof of my house and saw what is happening all around, I realized  that there was a similar fire in every home ! ( every body is unhappy/suffering )
May Sheikh Faridji bless us all !!

Hymns of Sheikh Farid…

Hymns of Sheikh Farid…
Sometime ago, I had posted a few hymns of Kabirji from our holy book Shri Guru Granth Sahib ji (SGGS).The response of the readers had been very encouraging. Hence, I now most humbly, endevour to post some hymns of Sheikh Farid from SGGS alongwith the translations. Before I go further,I feel some background information of this Saint would be useful : 
Baba Sheikh Farid — ( 1173 -1266) was a Muslim Saint from Punjab and 134 hymns composed by him, have been included in SGGS.His shlokas are included on pages 1377 to 1384 of SGGS.
Baba Farid’s great grand father was son of Farrukh Shah, the emperor of Kabul.Baba Farid’s great grand father was killed when Halaku, the grandson of Chengez Khan had invaded Kabul & had killed several princes and learned men, including several of Baba Farid’s ancestors.
Baba Farid’s grandfather Shaikh Shaib abandoned their country and took refuge in the Punjab in A.D. 1125.At the last stage of his life, Baba Farid had settled in a city then called Mokhalpur but now it is in Punjab (India) and is called Faridkot .He was a unique saint and scholor of spiritualism. His torch of Sufi thoughts was carried by his successors and  several others such as Sant Kabir and Guru Nanak .Sheikh Farid  can be truly called the founder of Punjabi literature, making Punjabi culture older than Hindi, Urdu and other languages of current times. It was much after Baba Farid that Kabir, Tulsidas, Mira Bai, etc started using common language of the people of India in their compositions. Baba Sheikh Farid can truly be considered a pioneer of the modern Punjabi culture and concept of Punjabi Language. Sant Farid is worshipped because of his spirituality,simplicity and piety.Not only has Farid influenced Hindus but he has been  one of the major inspirations behind Sikhism as well Muslims.

Hymn 1 :
    Farida galliye chikkad,door ghar, naal pyarey neho,
    Challan taan bhijjey kambli,rahan taan tuttey neho.
    Bhijo sijjou kambli,allah varsey meho,
    Jaaye milla tinna saajna, tuttey nahi neho.      (1379)
    Farid says, the lanes are full of mud, and my destination is
    far away,but my love for my Supreme Lord remains
    unshaken. If I go to meet Him,my cloak will get wet.
    If I don’t go,then my bond of love with Him will be broken.
    Let my cloak get wet and drenched;Let Allah cause a heavy
    down pour of rain.I will definitely go to meet my Lord and
    keep up my promise and ensure that my bond of love
    remains unbroken. 
Hymn 2:  
    Kaga karang dhadoliya,sagla khaya maas,
    Eh doyey naina matt chchuo, pirr dekhan ki aas !    (1382)
Translation :  
The crows have pecked at my skeletal body
and have eaten all my flesh.
Dear crows,please do not touch my eyes,
for I still have hope to see (have darshan of) my dear Lord.
Hymn 3 :
Farida khaak naa nindiyey, khaaku jedd naa koyey,
Jeevdiya pairaa talley,muyiya oopar hoyey !              (1378)
Farid says,do not ever speak ill of (slander) dust.
For,when we are alive,it is under our feet,
And when we are dead,it is above us ! (cremation)
Hymn 4 : 
Farida, mandap maal naa laayey, marag sataani chitt dhar,
Farida itt siraaney, bhuy sawann,keeda ladiyo maas.(1380-81)
Translation : 
Farid says, do not focus on mansions and wealth;
But centre your consciousness on death,your most powerful
When you die, a stone will be your pillow,the earth will be
your bed and the worms will eat into your flesh ! 
Hymn 5 :
Jey jaana marr jaayiey,ghumm naa aayiey,
Jhoothi duniyaan lagg,aap vanjhaiyey !          (488)
Translation :
Had I known that I was to die one day and never return,
I would not have ruined myself,by clinging to this world
of falsehood !
Dear Readers,I hope you will respond to these hymns as
usual.I pray that the Supreme Being above,takes care of
us all !
I shall post some more hymns of Sheikh Farid ji as soon as He
gives me the inspiration ! Have a nice day !

SANT KABIR- In Translation- Part – II

SANT KABIR- In Translation- Part – II

(Presented by J.S.Broca)

Continuing with the earlier posting on the above topic posted on 20th November 2009,I most humbly submit a few more hymns of Kabir Ji from Shri Guru Granth Saheb, the holy scriptures of the Sikhs, alongwith their translation :


Kabeer, the mortal loses his faith, for the sake of the world, but the world shall not go along with him in the end.
The idiot strikes his own foot with the axe by his own hand.


Kabeer, why cry at the death of a Saint? He is just going back to his home.
Cry for the wretched, faithless cynic, who is sold from store to store.


Kabeer, the sandalwood tree is good, even though it is surrounded by weeds.
Those who dwell near the sandalwood tree, become just like the sandalwood tree.


Kabeer, that which you have to do tomorrow – do it today instead; and that which you have to do now – do it immediately!
Later on, you will not be able to do anything, when death hangs over your head.


Kabeer, the fruit trees are bearing fruit, and the mangoes are becoming ripe.
They will reach the owner, only if the crows do not eat them first.


Kabeer, do not associate with the faithless cynics; run far away from them.
If you touch a vessel stained with soot, some of the soot will stick to you.

I hope these beautiful thoughts will make our lives fragrant.

SANT KABIR- In Translation- Part – I

SANT KABIR- In Translation- Part – I

The holy scriptures of the Sikhs-Shri Guru Granth Sahib( SGGS),contains over 500 verses by Sant Kabir.

There are 243 shlokas of Shri Kabir Ji appearing on pages 1364 to 1377 of SGGS.

Kabirji had composed his hymns in 17 ragaas like,Gauri, Asa, Gujri, Sorath, Dhanasri, Tilang, Suhi, Bilawal, Gauri, Ramkali, Maru, Kedara, Bharav, Basant, Sarang , Kanra & Prabhati.

His total compositions in SGGS are 541.The Sikh community refers to Kabirji as a “Bhagat”, while others who hold the Granth Sahib in high reverence,call him a “Guru”.

The major part of Kabirji’s work as a bhagat, was collected by Fifth Sikh Guru, Shri Guru Arjun Dev Ji , and it forms a part of Sikh scriptures.

I am humbly reproducing herebelow a few of Sant Kabir’s hymns from SGGS,selected at random,and written in approximately correct English pronunciation from the original in Gurumukhi script followed by its translation,collected from various sources:

1. Kabir,soota kya karey,baitha raho aur jaag,
Jaa ke sang tey beechchda,ta hi key sang laag.
Kabir, what are you doing sleeping? Wake up, and sit up.
Attach yourself to the One, from whom you have been separated.

2. Awal Allah noor upaaya,kudrat ke sabb bandey,
Ek noor te sab jugg upjiya,kaun bhaley kaun mandey.
First , Allah created the Light ; then, by His Creative Power, He made all mortal beings.
From the One Light, the entire universe welled up. So who is good, and who is bad?

3.Kabir, jiss marney te jagg darrey,merey mann anand,
Marney hee tey paayiey, pooran parmanand.
Kabir, the world is afraid of death – that death fills my mind with bliss.
It is only by death that perfect, supreme bliss is obtained.

4.Kabir,manas janam dulambh hai,hoyey naa baaram baar,
Jiyo ban phall paakey bhoin girrey,bahur naa laagey daar.
Kabir, it is so difficult to obtain this human body; it does not just come over and over again.
It is like the ripe fruit on the tree; when it falls to the ground, it cannot be re-attached to the branch.

5.Kabir,marta marta jagg muaa,marr bhi naa jaaney koye,
Aisi marni jo marrey,bahur naa marna hoye.
Kabir, the world is dying – dying to death, but no one knows how to truly die.
Whoever dies, let him die such a death, that he does not have to die again.

6. Harr hai khaand ret mehn bhikhri,haathee chunni naa jaaye,
Keh Kabir,gur bhali bhujhai, cheenti hoi ke khaaye.
The Lord is like sugar, scattered in the sand; the elephant cannot pick it up.
Says Kabir, the Guru has given me this sublime understanding: consume it by turning into an ant.

Dwell on these gems,till I post the next part.

God Bless us all with His Divine Grace !!

Sat Guru Nanak Pargatiaa..

Dear Readers,
Today is GURU NANAK DEV JI’s Birthday.
On this ocassion,I am making a humble effort to post one lovely hymn from our Sikh Scriptures.It was composed by Bhai Gurdas Sahib.
Bhai Gurdas (1551-1637) is a much honoured Sikh scholar, missionary, and literary master who is also respected for his Sikh way of life. He was a leading figure in Sikhism who enjoyed the company of Guru Arjun. the fifth Sikh Guru.
This hymn is recited with full devotion in all Gurudwaras on this ocassion by the present congregation as well as by the professional  Raggis (singers).
The original is in Gurumukhi script.The same has been presented in English with equivalent pronunciation from the original.
In order that most of our readers can follow its message,I am also giving its translation below each line.
I hope you all will like it. May God have mercy on all of us and enlighten us all to follow the true path in our lives !
Satguru Nanak pragatiaa,mitee dhundh jagg chaanan hoaa .
(With the emergence of the true Guru Nanak, the mist cleared and the light scattered all around.)

Jiu kar sooraj nikaliaa,taaray chhipay andher paloaa .
(As if with the rise of the sun, the stars disappeared and the darkness dispelled.)

Singh bukay miragaavalee bhannee jaai na dheer dharoaa.
(With the roar of the lion in the forest the flocks of escaping deer now cannot have endurance.)

Jithey baba pair dharay, poojaa aasanu thaapan soaa.

(Wherever Baba Nanak put his feet, a religious place was erected and established.)

Sidhaasan sabhi jagat day,Nanak aad matay jay koaa.

(All the places named on the names of various siddhas,now have been renamed on the name of Nanak.)

Ghar ghar andar dharamasaal hovai keeratan sadaa visoaa.
(Everyhome has become a place of dharma where devotional singing continues.)

Baabay taaray chaar chak nau khand prithavee sachaa dhoaa.

(Baba Nanak liberated all four directions and all nine divisions of this earth.)

Guramukh kal vich paragat hoaa.       ॥27॥

(Gurmukh (Guru Nanak) has emerged in this kaliyug–the dark age.)

Category: Sikhism  6 Comments